Tag Archives: stanozolol dosage

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stanozolol dosage

After oral administration fluconazole is well absorbed, bioavailability – 90%. The maximum concentration after oral administration of the drug on an empty stomach 150 mg sostavlyaet90% of plasma concentration after intravenous injection in a dose of 2.5-3.5 mg / l. Simultaneous food intake does not affect the absorption of fluconazole, taken orally.The time to maximum concentration after oral administration of 150 mg of the drug on an empty stomach – 0.5-1.5 hours. Plasma stanozolol dosage concentration is in direct proportion to the dose. The level of 90% of the equilibrium concentration is achieved in 4-5 day drug treatment (at reception 1 times / day). The introduction of “shock” dose (the first day), 2 times the usual daily dose, achieves a concentration level that corresponds to 90% of the equilibrium concentration of the second day. The volume of distribution close to the total water content in the body. Contact with blood plasma proteins – 11-12%. Fluconazole penetrates well into all body fluids. The concentration of active substance in breast milk, synovial fluid, saliva, sputum, and peritoneal fluids are similar to that of the plasma. Fixed values attained in vaginal secretions after 8 hours after oral administration and are maintained at this level for at least 24 hours. Fluconazole well penetrates into cerebrospinal fluid  in fungal meningitis concentration  is about 80% of its level in plasma. In the sweat fluid, the epidermis and stratum corneum (selective accumulation) in concentrations exceeding serum. On day 7 after ingestion of 150 mg fluconazole concentration in the stratum corneum is 23.4 g / g after 1 week after the second dose – 7.1 g / g. Concentration of fluconazole in healthy nails after 4 months of treatment at a dose of 150 mg 1 time per week was 4.05 g / g and 1.8 mg / g – in the affected nails. It is an inhibitor of CYP2C9 isoenzymes in the liver. Stanozolol dosage is detected in the peripheral blood.Report mostly kidneys (80% – unchanged, 11% – in the form of metabolites). The half-life of fluconazole -. About 30 hours clearance of fluconazole is proportional to the creatinine clearance. After dialysis for 3 hr in the plasma concentration of fluconazole is reduced by 50%.

Indications

  • cryptococcosis, including cryptococcal meningitis and other localization of the infection (including lung, skin), in patients with a normal immune response, and patients with various forms of immunosuppression ( patients, organ transplant ); drug can be used to prevent cryptococcal infection in  patients;
  • mucosal candidiasis, including oral cavity and pharynx (including atrophic oral candidiasis associated with wearing dentures), esophageal, non-invasive bronchopulmonary candidiasis, candiduria;Prevention of relapse of oropharyngeal kandidozau ;
  • genitalny candidiasis: vaginal candidiasis (acute and chronic recurrent); prophylactic use to reduce the frequency of relapses of vaginal candidiasis (3 or more episodes per year); Candida balanitis;
  • generalized candidiasis including candidemia, disseminated candidiasis and other forms of invasive Candida infections (infections of the peritoneum, endocardium, eyes, respiratory and urinary tract). The treatment can be carried out in patients with cancer, patients in intensive care units, patients undergoing a course of cytostatic or immunosuppressive therapy, as well as the presence of other factors predisposing to the development of candidiasis;
  • fungal infections of the skin, including tinea pedis, body, groin; pityriasis (multicolored) versicolor, onychomycosis and skin candida infection;
  • deep endemic mycoses, including coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis in patients with normal immune systems;
  • prevention of fungal infections in patients stanozolol dosage with malignancy who are predisposed to such infections as a result of chemotherapy, cytostatics or radiation therapy.

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to fluconazole, other azole drug components or compounds with a similar structure of fluconazole;
  • concomitant use of terfenadine (on the background of continuous use of fluconazole 400 mg / day or more);
  • concomitant use of cisapride, astemizole, as well as other drugs prolonging the stanozolol dosageinterval;
  • lactation;
  • Children under 4 years of age.

stanozolol dosage

In humans, 2-fluoro-ara-AMP rapidly and completely dephosphorylated to the nucleoside 2-fluoro-ara-A. After a single infusion to patients with stanozolol dosage maximum concentration  of 2-fluoro-ara-A is 3.5-3.7 mol and reached the end of infusion . Determine the appropriate level of 2-fluoro-ara-A after five injections of the drug showed moderate cumulation with a mean Cmax equal to 4.4-4.8 mmol at the time of the end of infusion. During the five-day treatment levels of 2-fluoro-ara-A in the plasma increased in two times. Thus accumulation of 2-fluoro-ara-A after several treatment cycles may be small. Communication 2-fluoro-ara-A plasma proteins – small. After reaching  plasma levels of 2-fluoro-ara-A is reduced in three phases: elimination  in the alpha phase is about 5 minutes, the beta phase and 1.2 hours in the terminal phase of about 20 hours.

2-fluoro-ara-A excreted mainly by the kidneys (40-60% of the administered I / dose). 2-fluoro-ara-A is delivered to the leukemic cells active transport where refosforiliruetsya to partially monophosphate to the triphosphate and da. Triphosphate  is the major intracellular metabolite and the only known metabolite possessing cytotoxic activity. The maximum concentration of in leukemic lymphocytes from  patients was observed after an average of 4 hours after the infusion and characterized by significant fluctuations average value of about 20 micromolar. The concentration  in leukemic cells was always much higher than its maximum concentration in the plasma, indicating that the cumulation of material in the target cells.

A clear correlation between the pharmacokinetics of 2-fluoro-ara-A and the therapeutic effect of the drug in cancer patients have been identified, however, the frequency of neutropenia and changes in hematocrit indicate the dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of fludarabine phosphate as hematopoietic suppression.

Individuals with impaired renal function was observed reduction of the total clearance of the drug, indicating the need for dose reduction.

Indications

  • B-cell lymphocytic leukemia stanozolol dosage.
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Contraindications

  • Increased sensitivity to fludarabine or other components of the preparation.
  • Impaired renal function (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL / min).
  • Decompensated haemolytic anemia.
  • Pregnancy and lactation.
  • Children’s age (lack of sufficient clinical data)

Precautions: after a careful assessment of risk / benefit ratio fludarabine should be used in frail patients with marked decrease in bone marrow function (thrombocytopenia, anemia and / or granulocytopenia), in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency, immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections in history, in patients older than 75 years.

Dosage and administration
are allowed only in / in the introduction of fludarabine, so as to avoid accidental extravascular hit.

Adult
recommended dose fludarabine phosphate is 25 mg / m2 body surface / w once a day for 5 days every 28 days. The required dose (calculated in accordance with the patient’s body surface area) in a syringe.For I / bolus dose of the above formulation was diluted in 10 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution as required dose can be diluted in 100 ml 0.9% sodium chloride and administered kapelyyu for 30 minutes.There are no clear data on the optimal duration of treatment is not. The course of treatment depends on the observed effect and tolerability.

It is recommended that treatment with fludarabine to achieve a therapeutic response (usually 6 cycles), after the drug overturned.

Use in patients with impaired hepatic function
on the efficacy and safety data of fludarabine in patients with impaired hepatic function is limited. Patients in this group fludarabine administered with caution after a careful assessment of risk / benefit ratio.Treatment of these patients should be under close supervision. It may be necessary to reduce the dose or cancel treatments.

Use in patients with impaired renal function
In patients with possible impaired renal function and in patients older than 70 years is necessary to determine the creatinine clearance. If creatinine clearance in the range of 30-70 ml / min the dose should be reduced by up to 50%, and controlled to treat blood tests to assess toxicity. If creatinine stanozolol dosage clearance less than 30 mL / min fludarabine treatment is contraindicated.

Side effects:
The frequency of adverse events listed based on clinical trial data regardless of the causal relationship with fludarabine, in accordance with the following gradation of frequency: very common (more than 10%), common (more than 1% but less than 10%), uncommon (more than 0.1% but less than 1%), rare (more than 0.01% but less than 0.1%).